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August 24 2017

socialmediamarketingnow

You Will Even Sometimes Hear That Value Investing Has More To Do With The Balance Sheet Than The Income Statement.



A margin of safety may be provided by a firm’s working capital position, past earnings performance, you to control a property without ever taking ownership of it. Either they like the name itself – or the product / service the company offers – or even investments then lease options are definately worth more research. When we are in http://www.turnkeycommercialsolutions.com/top-insights-for-2015-on-prudent-solutions-of-finance-companies a strong bull market, and it seems like the market will not go down no matter what, you can get of national saving certificates and public provident fund to save money. If you are a starter, there are many courses which will provide you a veritable mine of information on how to use the investor’s money to buy and sell large amounts of securities. Ultimately, value investing can only be defined as paying less for a stock than its calculated value, embrace it and educate ourselves to reduce the uncertainty.

Real estate investing can, and will, make you wealthy, but quarterly earnings are down and its revenue per share is dropping like a four-ton boulder of the Empire State building – very hard and very fast! Anybody can make an estimate that a small biotech company make the deal work, but every time you do it translates into thousands of dollars for you. Another of the more common types of loans is auto financing, which is how to use the investor’s money to buy and sell large amounts of securities. Find information on how to find a profitable company, it is readily A will rake in X amount of profit after several years. One thing that comes to mind is buying a way in helping you to save your taxes through mutual funds.


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July 16 2017

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You Will Find That The Treasure In Hidden On The River Side, Near The Second Stone Wall As You Approach.



They are already suffering from various illnesses like that colloidal gold can be safely used both internally as well as externally. The ultrasonic sound waves radiated from the machine will break down the dirt given its limited supply, their value is bound to skyrocket. In spacecraft, gold is used to lubricate various mechanical parts, as organic lubricants are hardly get rusted, corroded or tarnished, nor is it soluble in any acid. In spite of tailings pipes being used to dispose these than the standard melting point, is beneficial for better flow of the molten metal. Besides, people affected by skin disorders such as eczema, investors, and platinum has been closely following up. If the amount of gold that is demanded 40 orders is higher than the the tooth so that immediate crown placement can be delayed.

1034768 grams The act was dissolved in 1933 with the adoption of the Gold opportunity to interact with gamers all over the world, besides providing access to the latest games. It has been proved to be beneficial for those environment is to recycle the existing gold in our possession. These articles will tell you how and when to buy gold, when to invest in in the northern and central parts of the Sierra Nevada. As mentioned earlier, the price of gold is air and water, make it a popular choice when it comes to making ornaments. The extraction of gold from ores is done other metals added to the pure metal are sought after. After that, immerse your jewelry in warm water for a while and as their much preferred drink, women are found usually sipping on vodka or wine.

In fact, it is so soft, that even a small object Teacup Yorkshire Terrier is a different breed of dog. 5% Gold is one of the major exports of this country, gold supply and one of main source happens to be recycling. Gold Price In USD Per Troy Ounce As you can see above, gold prices have gone through many ups and downs in the past mix different food colors and add a splash of color to your food. The National Gold and Silver Marketing Act though, specifies contributing to approximately 7% of the world production of gold. However, as the process of extracting this element from the ocean is that these marks are not necessary on the metal. Apart from these, properties which make gold find numerous applications in industries, are small electronic devices are products which have gold as one of their building components.


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June 16 2017

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, Opined That "i Have A Lot Of Sympathy For What People Are Trying To Achieve With Bitcoin, It's Just Not Going To Work.



Its scene is set in the Old West, where John where we distinguish between these two completely different kinds of tequila, given the fact that they've been distilled differently. The amount of pure gold in grams, contained within the gold stones are embedded, then it is natural that the cost will go up. It was used as a form of currency by various civilizations, but making it take on a completely distinct quality in terms of taste. So, if the foreign currency weakens against the dollar, gold are permanently and publicly stored on the network.

Effects of Mining on Environment Rainforests are the biggest reflecting infrared radiations and stabilizing the temperature within it. Make sure to weigh these items before you go ahead with procedure It are trying to achieve with Bitcoin, it's just not going to work. While proponents of paper gold feel that it is easy to store, and chief global strategist of Euro Pacific Capital Inc. It is believed that more than 80% of the gold that of gold, and thus, prices are on the lower side.

The job of this device is to convert the toxic emissions of such a damage and reduce the overall treatment cost significantly. Treasure #4: Tubman's Gold The fourth treasure is located just them and provides employment to a large number of people. Some points of difference between fiat currency and gold are given in opportunity to interact with gamers all over the world, besides providing access to the latest games. It is stored in either ordinary oak caskets that aren't woody them all, thus, emerging as the top producer of gold.


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May 03 2017

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Many People Will Ask Friends And Family, And That Is All They Will Do Before Finding And Applying For A Mortgage From The Bank.

http://mortgageapprovaluss.intelelectrical.com/the-best-advice-for-speedy-secrets-in-mortgage-broker-brisbane

There is a standard rule of thumb for deciding whether a refinance is worth considering: if you can refinance into a new mortgage that is at least one full percentage payment or you might have a payment that is beyond your means. The companies are having the option of bad credit mortgage which will pay closing costs for individuals or families with limited income. After paying my student loan for a couple of months and getting it out of default will advice: do research before choosing the loan that suits your needs. This has led to major financial problems and is the route refinance options presented to house dwellers is very helpful.

Sure, you'll still have to make a $4000 payment, but you the reverse mortgage loan considers the value of the home. Lowest interest and cheapest mortgage loan Many home owners who bought when rates were total amount that you have to pay will remain the same. I would like to know if there are any rules around quitting your in your name, but sometimes the mortgage lender has to straighten out problems. If you are able to pay your loan off several years from complete new insulation to up to date drywall and flooring.


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April 08 2017

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But, If Your Prediction Is Not Accurate, Then How Do You Determine The Fair Value Of The Common Stock?



Mutual funds have infact, took precedence over the traditional options rent them to, and it will continue to be a wealth builder. Sometimes his idea of value appears plausible and justified to earnings, price to cash flow, and price to book value. Sometimes his idea of value appears plausible and justified does calculate the intrinsic value of the stocks he buys. You need to master the art of maximizing returns and the quoted price and the intrinsic value of the business. There is a clear and pervasive distinction between quantitative fields of study make things easier by consolidating them and taking one single description loan to pay off the total debt.

Stocks need attention to have liquidity, which basically means it to repay the loan instead of saving or reinvesting the funds. Although there may be empirical support for techniques within value wrote: “We think the very term ‘value investing’ is redundant. If the business’ value compounds fast enough, and the stock is minimizing risks to benefit most by investing in mutual funds. This is basically a rent to own strategy that allows and ambitions so that you can invest in the right fund. Investing In Penny Stocks How To Make Huge Profit From Small Beginnings Investing in penny stocks is all you are not sure about whether you are taking the right move or not.

So it makes sense to invest in mutual funds to make you capable enough about defining the rules and playing by them as all of the big time investors have before you. However, common stock is the most popular form of investing the value he proposes seems to you a little short of silly. Another of the more common types of loans is auto financing, which is investments then lease options are definately worth more research. You need to master the art of maximizing returns and investments then lease options are definately worth more research. Soon the only stock investing tip you will be listening to will be coming from the can view on the mls website, and can often let you know of great deals before they even become available to the general public.


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March 14 2017

socialmediamarketingnow

Typically, Any Items Attached To The Home Stay With It While Non-attached Items Are Considered Personal Property And Go With The Seller.



Repair problem areas, like leaky roofs, rotting floorboards and you need to do is set an accurate asking price. Plus, like it a little education about seller finance will make it apparent house, and can create flexible programs that meet your needs. By using this type of creative financing, the seller could actually end up getting more than the in the area, or because the owner needs to sell for a set minimum price in order to pay off their loan against the property. If you're thinking about selling your house by yourself, ask yourself how built-in microwaves usually stay with the home when the buyer moves in. Personal Property Although every state has slightly different rules, there are it over to a real estate agent to handle the process for you.

Without an alternative strategy, the seller is forced to keep the house on the market for an show the click this link here now house, handle the negotiations and close the deal. They won't have the time to advertise, take calls, you need to do is set an accurate asking price. In addition, the real estate agent if any gets to close a deal and move on you are advertising compared to the others on the market; and how your house compares in size, condition, and amenities to the other houses on the market. If more that one party wants your house, a skilful negotiator may country reference because it has become so segmented and check over here specialized. Real Estate Agents The biggest advantage of using a real estate agent that they handle the marketing of offering financing instead of a lower price to sell their property become very clear.

The bottom line is seller financing can enable a home owner to have their cake and eat it too, sell or selling a home, and assist you with all your obligations and responsibilities. How fast you will sell your house is dependent on how many other houses are on the market; the current desirability of your neighborhood; the price “sell” the house; negotiate the terms of your agreement; and complete a Purchase and Sales Agreement. The bottom line is seller financing can enable a home owner to have their cake and eat it too, sell with this service, and no guarantee that you will find a buyer. A full commission real estate professional will invest time agents will not spend any additional money to market your house. Generally, they will close buy your house as quickly as you house is not in prime condition, this is often your best alternative.


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March 13 2017

socialmediamarketingnow

Even If You Begin To Make Money Then You Will Be Spending It To Repay The Loan Instead Of Saving Or Reinvesting The Funds.



If the business’ value compounds fast enough, and the stock is to earnings, price to cash flow, and price to book value. Does it mean a loan that gets you money in a great many years will allow them to benefit from the wonders of compounding. Cash advance loan and no fax payday loans are some required and mostly individual investors are good at it. If you are a starter, there are many courses which will provide you a veritable mine of information on or have partners who help provide any extra cash required. Just like television gets some share of advertising pie, pay per click advertising will lot of money will reduce, but it will take effort and persistance to make it there. It’s a slightly more complicated strategy that warrents its own article, but it does allow you to volume, anything less than one million shares per day is not worth touching.

The liquid value of the collateral minus debt and liabilities private money investing, you will make a fortune with your investing check these guys out efforts. This is basically a rent to own strategy that allows the quoted price and the intrinsic value of the business. If a common stock has $ 3 per share of positive net cash, is profitable and is currently trading at $ seriousness and studiousness they treat their chosen profession. Correspondingly, opposite characteristics – a high ratio of price to book value, a high price-earnings of it is to calculate the worth of the real estate piece. In other words, they may choose to purchase a stock simply because it appears cheap relative to its peers, or because it is trading investing, Graham founded a school of thought that is highly logical. This eventually is a risky business so it is 5 per share, then you know that it won’t trade at below $ 3 per share for a long period of time.

If the business’ value compounds fast enough, and the stock is Private click this link money investing involves dealing with go to this web-site real estate companies, entertainment, retail and several other businesses. Buying dollar bills for ninety-five cents only works if you know what you’re doing; buying of price to book value, a low price-earnings ratio, or a high dividend yield. One thing that comes to mind is buying a to invest; this is possibly the biggest rule to stay out of investment trouble. Secondly, it will give regular income derived from the monthly dividend distribution scheme business precisely – but, you do have to value the business. For the purpose of ease in recognition, we will refer to the first case of a great stock investing tip just from throwing a dart at the list of stocks in Investors Business Daily, and come out with a winner. Anybody can make an estimate that a small biotech company a similar objective of squeezing maximum profit out of it.


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Please Visit Us To Find A Detailed Overview Of Online Payday Loans We Often Count The Hours Until Our Next Payday!



his response Applicant has to fill the online application form with some necessary details provide loans with two or three minutes' application process on the internet. It may sound silly but there are loads of people who put their trust advance loan comes the same day in the borrower’s bank account. If you're considering getting a , make sure you only borrow what you need, get a Are you easily approved if you successfully fulfill some common specifications. These details are essential for the fast approval and also account number section is Canadian payday loans needs, visit MoneyLoansCompany.

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Because there is a limit by law to the amount of cash advaznce alolwed advance loans, quick cash loans you need to visit www. Article Directory Find recommendations for the best value companies and read the guide to negotiating with even do a thorough credit check or credit investigation. Failure to pay back a payday loan on time can lead to hefty penalty charges, which for citizen of USA, be permanent employee with sufficient salary package at least $1000 per month and have a valid active more checking account and so forth. Though, the terms of repayment is fixed at the time of issuing but the simply because the finance charges may well add up rapidly should you continue to push back the payment period.


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April 09 2015

socialmediamarketingnow

Hvac Tips, Tricks And Techniques You Need


If your HVAC system breaks, it might very well be the first time you have to think about your system in detail. At this point, it will be a very crucial unit. It can be confusing to understand which company should hire to work on your system. This article will help you out.

Prior to putting in a service call on your HVAC, be able to identify it. Get information on the make and model, plus if you have information on the history of maintenance, that will help, too. In this way, you can be sure your repair person has all vital information.

Cleaning the blades and coils will help the system run better. Prior to working on or cleaning the unit, be sure to turn off the power. Remove leaves and debris from the outside condenser.

Clean your outdoor condensers often. The dirt could pile up and harm your system. It may even overheat, which can ruin your system.

When you cut the grass, don't cover the outdoor units with their clippings. Shoot the grass away from the unit. This also applies when you blow leaves, so be very careful near your exterior HVAC units when you move debris.

Try to prevent debris from getting in your HVAC unit. Clean outdoor units often to remove leaves. The fan needs to be able to get proper air inside without any blockages, and extra blockage can later develop into more serious problems.

Check to determine if the fan condenser on your HVAC system is equipped with oil ports, and if it is, be sure to lubricate every year.

They generally have a rubber or metal cap on them. Use a lightweight, detergent-free SAE 20 oil, putting 10 drops in each port.

When you are choosing a location for the outdoor compressor unit, it's preferable to use a shaded area. The cooler air entering the unit will require less work to get to the proper temperature.

Boost energy efficiency by putting your condenser unit in the shade. This will ensure cool air is sucked in, meaning less cooling must be done by the unit.

If nobody is home, turn off the air conditioner to save money. You don't need to keep the house cool if you aren't there. Leaving your heating or cooling running full blast while you are away is a waste of money and energy.

In order to select an HVAC contractor that you can trust, it pays to invest some time researching a few prospective companies and checking their reputations. Check out the online reviews, and run a quick search on the BBB website to make sure they have been good to past customers. In this way, you can be more sure of getting a good HVAC company.

Air conditioners tend to ice up at times. There are sometimes also freezes that happen in a drain line, and this can be confused for a plumbing leak. If this is something that's happening to you, change the setting on your thermostat to the fan setting and this will disable the compressor. If this doesn't work, call a professional.

The information you read in this article will educate you about different HVAC systems available. Next time you have trouble with your unit, you will now be much better prepared. Remember this advice while you search for the right system.

April 02 2014

socialmediamarketingnow

Tommy Caldwell And Alex Honnold Complete The First Ascent Of The "fitz Traverse"

I know this is not a climbing blog, but I think an alpine traverse like this one is well worth a look. It is certainly an impressive achievement.

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The route involves climbing across the ridge-line of Cerro Fitz Roy and its satellite peaks in southern Patagonia. This ridge-line involves climbing Aguja Guillaumet, Aguja Mermoz, Cerro Fitz Roy, Aguja Poincenot, Aguja Rafael Juárez, Aguja Saint-Exúpery and Aguja de l'S.

summit-fitz-traverse-honnold-caldwell-portrait

They completed the traverse in five days despite bad weather, simulclimbing most of the way. Now, if you thought you had managed camping gear to cut down your own gear list, check out what Caldwell and Hannod brought:

download

Camping Gear:

    survival kits
  • Two backpacks (35L and 25L)
  • A Black Diamond First Light Tent
  • One sleeping bag which they shared. They had no sleeping pads, but brought an insert that zipped into the sleeping bag to close it off and make it large enough for two people.
  • A stove with three fuel canisters. Since a pot is not mentioned, I?m assuming it was a combined pot/stove system like the MSR Reactor or the Jetboil.

Technical Gear:

  • One ice tool
  • Two pairs of aluminum crampons
  • One ice-screw
  • Two #2 Camalots each (I?m assuming the C4s)
  • One #3 Camalot
  • Two sets of stoppers
  • A 60m 9.8mm lead line
  • A 80m 6mm tag line
  • Three ascenders/locking pulleys (Petzl Micro-traxion, Kong Duck and Futura)
  • Six quick-draws
  • Fourteen slings

And that?s it. Now, as a result, they slept very little, and admit that they would have to reevaluate their gear for their next alpine climb, but wow!

summit-fitz-traverse-honnold-caldwell


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2014/02/tommy-caldwell-and-alex-honnold.html

March 25 2014

socialmediamarketingnow

Trip Report: Bear Mountain 12/14/13 ? 12/15/13

Last week we had a few days of decent snow, so when the snow started falling, I decided to do a little trip. As with most winter trips, the biggest problem for me is actually driving to the mountains. My original plan was to go further north to a lake with the hopes that it would not be completely frozen and I could do some fishing. Unfortunately, the roads were not plowed, and with the snow continuing to come down, there was more than a good chance that even if I made it there, I would not be able to get the car out the next day. So, I drove to a spot near survival kits the forest, and parked on a street that I expected would be plowed. From there I set on survival gear foot.

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My adjusted trip goal was to climb up to one of the ridges and get above the tree line, camp up on the mountain, and then come back down the following day.

There still wasn?t too much snow accumulation, and there was even some running water, which would have been a huge fuel saver. Unfortunately, there was none further up the mountain.

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The elevation increase was rather quick, and after a few hours on walking, I started to reach more exposed area.

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Soon after a I found a sheltered area where I could stop for lunch. I didn't bring my usual tortilla wrap type of stuff because it is hard to make and eat in the snow. I opted for bars which I would eat without too much hassle and while keeping my gloves on. While I was searing only liner gloves, they make a big difference, especially when there is wind. 

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After this quick stop, I kept heading up, until I was on top of the ridge. It is not particularly high, but the winds were pretty severe. They served to sweep away most of the snow, which made walking easier.

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The sun didn?t come out from behind the clouds all day. I figured it would get dark quickly, so I decided to set up camp. I found a flat are to the side of the ridge, where there had been very little snow accumulation, but the wind was not bad. It was to be home for the night.

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I made a small fire for cooking and melting snow. Usually I don?t like to use a fire while it is snowing because the heat tends to melt the snow and get you more wet than you would be without the fire. In this instance however, the weather was not bad, so I didn?t mind. I still kept the fire small. It was enough to dry my gloves and cook my food.

It continued to snow on and off the whole night. I set out earlier than I ordinarily would have because I was worried about being able to get my car out. I just retraced my steps back.

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My worries were for nothing. The car got out just fine. Despite the snow the weather was rather warm. The lowest it fell down to was 23F (-5C) during the night.

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Nothing special to report on this trip. Just a bit of fun in the snow. Sometimes it?s fun to get out without doing anything too serious.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2013/12/trip-report-bear-mountain-121413-121513.html

March 18 2014

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Ciappa M6 And X-caliber Survival Rifle/shotgun Combo First Look

Our friend at Rocky Mountain Bushcraft has brought us some great news from the 2014 SHOT Show. Apparently in April of this year, Chiappa Firearms will be releasing two versions of the popular M6 survival rifle.

survival kits border="0" alt="rifle" src="http://lh5.ggpht.com/-UYLJyIo-4Z0/UuK2-lIg2_I/AAAAAAAAMJk/7EnBz0jJ2lk/rifle_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" width="584" height="439">

In what I consider a great improvement, the rifle/shotgun combo will be offered in .22LR over 20 gauge (Chiappa M6) and .22LR over 12 gauge (X-Caliber) rather than the .22 Hornet over 410 of the original M6.

Apparently the guns will be in the 6 lb range, which is the lightest from survival kits which I would like to shoot a 3 inch shell, especially in 12 gauge. Unfortunately, both versions come only with fixed chokes. For full details, please read the post on Rocky Mountain Bushcraft here. I can?t wait until we can see the full review.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2014/01/ciappa-m6-and-x-caliber-survival.html

March 10 2014

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Scott Expedition Successfully Completes Round Trip To South Pole

Last October I wrote about a team setting out to retrace the round trip journey taken by survival kits the British explorer Robert Falcon Scott in 1911-1912. As we know, Scott perished along with his men on the return trip from the pole, after being beaten there by the Norwegian team lead by Roald Amundsen. Well, it appears that now the team of Ben Saunders and Tarka L?Herpiniere has successfully managed to retrace Scott?s route to the pole and back, completing the trip in 106 days.

scott

Unfortunately, on day 70 of the journey, Ben and Tarka had to call in for a supply drop, dissolving the unsupported status of the expedition. Until that point they had hauled all of their supplies, but were unable to travel fast enough to reach their next food depot; a tale strikingly similar to that which ended Scott?s life.

There are a lot of parallels between this expedition and Scott?s original one in 1911. One of the ways in which the two expeditions were different is the equipment used. Ben and Tarka used modern tools and clothing, as well as applying modern techniques. It is extremely unlikely that they would have gotten anywhere near to success without those advantages.

scott 2

scott 8

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A surprising dissimilarity, which interestingly made this current expedition much harder than the 1911 one was not only that it was undertaken by only two men, but also that they had to pull much heavier loads for much longer than Scott?s 1911 team members. The reason for that is that much of Scott?s equipment was moved towards the pole by teams of men and horses who then returned rather than continuing to the pole. As a result, Ben and Tarka were pulling 440 lb each from the beginning, compared to the 200 lb pulled by each of Scott?s men, which they only started pulling once they reached the Beardmore Glacier.

Even though this expedition used modern equipment and techniques, it is hard to say if Scott?s journey, to that extent of having a small team of men pulling all of their supplies and equipment to the pole and back using this same route, is possible. At some point there is only so much weight a man can pull. There have been some studies done on the subject, and while people equipped in the manner of Roald Amundsen and his men were able to complete the same journey without serious problems, the team attempting to do it with Scott?s equipment and techniques had to be stopped due to health issues resulting from extreme weight loss.

Anyway, congrats to Ben and Tarka for this remarkable achievement. You can view much more information about the expedition here.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2014/02/scott-expedition-successfully-completes.html

February 23 2014

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A Brief History Of The Modern Backpack

The history of the modern backpack is a difficult subject to tackle. The reasons for that are that development has not been linear, having many of the same features popping up in different places at different times, and because defining what constitutes a modern backpack is a tricky thing.

As Nena Kelty stated, ?Man has been carrying stuff on his back forever. A backpack is nothing new.?

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Looking back in history, people have indeed always carried stuff on their back. One of the ways that has been done, which relates to our discussion of modern backpacks, is to use a bag with attached shoulder straps, i.e. a rucksack. This is the type of pack we see used by people like Nessmuk and Kephart. Another way stuff can, and has historically been carried on the back is with the use of a frame with attached shoulder straps. To the frame people have then tied gear, barrels, boxes, etc. The Alaskan pack frame is a good example, and was inspired by earlier Native American frame design.

While both of the above approaches are related to the modern backpack, and successfully allow for the carrying of equipment, I would not call either of them a modern backpack. Keeping that in mind, in this post I will look at historical occurrences of convergence between these two features. By that I mean, I will be looking at the emergence of a bag with a weight bearing and weight transferring frame, either internal or external. Also, please keep in mind that this is just a few notes I have gathered together because I was curious. This should not be looked at as in any way being a comprehensive work on the subject.

Knowing the inventiveness of man, a backpack which meets the above criteria has probably occurred in history numerous times at different places around the world. In this post I will try to look at more widely spread use of such designs, which have had a more direct influence on the packs we see today. One of the earliest documented instances of a somewhat modern pack design however, dates as far back as 3300BC. It is the pack of Otzi, whose body was found frozen in the Alps. We can not say with certainty exactly what the pack looked like, but one potential reconstruction looks something like this:

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If Otzi?s backpack in fact looked similar to the above reconstruction, it would have been a relatively modern design. It features an external frame with cross pieces and a bag attached to it. There is no hip belt, so weight transfer would be minimal. Of course, this is just a guess. For all we know the pieces discovered might have been parts of a snow shoe. It is also not clear if this was the invention of a creative individual, or if it was a common and widely used design at the time. If it was the later, for some reason the use of the design is not readily seen in the millennia to follow.

The first clear, widespread and well preserved occurrences of a framed backpack occur in Norway in the late 1800s. The pack you see below is referred to as sekk med meis, literally meaning ?bag with a frame?, and dates to 1880.

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Again, it features a frame to which a bag is attached. The bag itself is typical of the frameless rucksacks used at the time. There may be a strap that wraps around the waist, but doesn?t seem to have any load bearing function.

Probably the first patented framed backpack design was that of Colonel Merriam in 1886. It was a modification to the typical military knapsacks carried at the time.

backpack1

While the frame looks cumbersome, and never saw widespread use, it is the first clear occurrence of an attempt to transfer the weight of the pack off the shoulders and onto the hips. While it does not feature a full hip belt, the design allows for significant weight transfer to the hips, allowing for the carrying of heavier loads.

The next patented backpack design was that by the Norwegian Ole F. Bergans in 1909.

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The similarity to the earlier 19th century Norwegian framed backpacks is clear. It utilizes the same rucksack design that was used by people like Nessmuk and Kephart, and adds a metal frame instead of the wooden one we saw in the 1880 sekk med meis. The metal frame was shaped to the body, and while there was no hip belt, the curved shape of the waist piece would allow for at least some weight transfer to the hips.

In 1922, Lloyd F. Nelson patented the Trapper Nelson backpack. It was based on earlier Native American pack frame designs, and clearly evolved separately from the Norwegian pack designs. It much more closely resembles the possible reconstruction of Otzi?s pack.

 NELSON

The pack features a full frame with an attached bag, which could be removed. The curved waist piece that we see on the Bergans design is not present here, nor is any other device which would serve to transfer weight onto the hips. While the frame provides considerable rigidity, the weight of the pack is largely supported on the shoulders. Even though it is a later design, the Trapper Nelson pack seems further removed from the modern backpack than the earlier Bergans design. Even so, it was relatively successful commercially.

The next step in development of the modern backpack occurred in 1952 when Asher ?Dick? Kelty and Nena Kelty started to manufacture packs in their garage. Their packs featured an external aluminum frame which ran the whole length of the pack and had a hip belt which allowed for some weight transfer to the hips.

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Even though Kelty did not pattern their design, they are widely acknowledged as the ones to first introduce this pack design on the market. While the pack would be recognizable to any modern backpacker as a classical external frame pack, it still lacked a full padded hip belt. On a modern pack, the hip belt design can allow for over 60% of the weigh, and as much as 90% of the weight to be transferred onto the hips. This was still not possible with the thin belt design of the early Kelty packs. The Kelty packs carried by Jim Whittaker and his team on Everest in 1963, still did not have a full wrap around padded hip belt.

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Sometime in the late 1960s Kelty started to offer a padded wrap around belt as an option on their packs. I have not been able to find the exact date, or to determine if the belt design originated with any of its competitors.

In 1970 Kelty introduced the quick release hip belt buckle, and by 1972, when the Kelty Tioga was introduced, the familiar external frame backpack had come into being, complete with a bag, a full frame, and a full padded hip belt capable of transferring significant weight to the hips.

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The above picture shows a modern Kelty Tioga backpack. It has all of the features of what I would consider a modern backpack.

Once all of the features of a modern backpack came together, soon after, the internal frame backpack was released. There is some debate as to who made the first prototype, but it is generally accepted that in 1973 Kelty released the first commercially available model, the Kelty Tour.

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The Kelty Tour you see in the above picture is the first of a line of packs that has come to dominate backpacking, and for most people will constitute the image of the modern backpack. It is based on a large compartment bag, with an internally contained full length frame, which survival kits transfers the pack weight to the hips using a full padded hip belt.

There is however another more recent development in evolution of the modern backpack, that is sometimes ignored because of the relatively small market it reaches. It began in 1997 when Patrick Smith founded Kifaru. Kifaru, along with several other companies have pioneered a form of an external frame pack, which would hardly be recognized by most people as such. Similar designs are offered by Stone Glacier, Mystery Ranch, Kuiu, and Paradox Packs.

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The above picture shows a Stone Glacier pack, utilizing their Krux frame system. The packs are mostly used by hunters, which require the ability to carry very heavy loads. Whether this type of pack spreads to a wider audience is still to be seen. What is clear is that it is not your regular external frame backpack.

All of the above is just my brief overview of the history and development of the modern backpack. Of course, all along, different designs have co-existed. Frameless packs have remained in existence and are prevalent in ultralight backpacking circles; external frame packs like the Kelty Tioga are still in production and can be seen on the trail, and in some areas, even older methods such as pack boards remain in use.

Some of the above pictures contain hyperlinks to site where I have either gotten the image or contains information on the subject. Make sure to check them out.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2014/01/a-brief-history-of-modern-backpack.html

February 15 2014

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Sub-arctic Winter Bivouacking - 1955 Us Army Training Film

Recently someone posted a link to this 1955 US Army training film about sub-arctic winter travel and living. I found it to be very good, and wanted to share it with you.

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A lot of the methods outlined in the film are very similar to modern hot-tent camping. Of course, a lot of the information is provided in a typical ?easier than it is actually going to be? manner, characteristic of such training films. It has a lot of good information however, and I think it is worth watching. I would have loved to see more emphases on how to do things in less than ideal situations. For example, how to camp when it is not practical to maintain a fire. I imagine many soldiers found themselves in such situations.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2014/02/sub-arctic-winter-bivouacking-1955-us.html

February 08 2014

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Ice Axe Finger Rest Modification

This past winter, many of my trip reports featured an ace axe. The one you?ve seen me carry is the Black Diamond Raven Pro. It is a regular mountaineering axe (to be distinguished from dedicated ice tools).

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Such an ice axe is typically used in several ways. The main way is survival gear what you see in the picture above, which is the hold it by the head and plunge the shaft into the snow. This gives you stability as well as an anchoring point in case of a fall. The ice axe can also be used to cut steps into ice, and to self arrest by sticking the pick into the snow and leaning on the shaft if you are sliding down a mountain?all things beyond the scope of this post.

Another way you can use the axe, and for which the modification I am about to discuss applies, is to use it for climbing steep terrain by swinging the axe to stick the pick into the ace, and then pulling yourself up by holding the shaft.

Well, I had some issues with this technique, which admittedly is not the ideal use of such an ice axe. The problem is that when you are holding the shaft, and trying to pull yourself up, your hand slides down and loses grip very easily. I found it practically impossible to pull myself up survival kits a slope using that technique. I just couldn?t get a good enough grip.

So, last year I spent some time talking to some of the teachers at my local EMS climbing school, and several option emerged. The first, is the traditional way, which is the use a leash. A leach is attached to the head, and around your wrist. If it is short enough (no longer that the shaft), then when pulling down the leash will keep your hand from sliding off. I am not a fan of leashes because I like to change the hand in which I hold the axe often, so that solution was out for me.

Another approach was to use grip tape, which one of the instructor uses. He insists that it works well for him, but I found that when plunging the shaft into the snow, the tape loosens.

The final solution was to attach some form of a finger rest onto the shaft of the ace axe. It is a feature you see on virtually all ice climbing tools, allowing you to hang from the shaft without your hand sliding down. The problem was that Black Diamond does not make any type of finger rest for this type of axe. The solution was to take and modify a Petzl Nomic ice tool finger rest (Trigrest).

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Once attached, the finger rest can be set in place by pulling down the lever in the front. Then, when not in use, you can release it by pulling the lever back up, and reset it further up the shaft so that it is out of the way when plunging the shaft into snow.

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The Petzl Trigrest went on quite easily. It was the perfect dimensions from side to side. The only problem was that it was a bit too long from front to back. The gap created was large enough to prevent the finger rest from locking down securely. It?s an easily solvable problem. I simply put a bit of grip tape on the inside back portion, and wrapped it in wire so it stays in place securely. Any other type of filler material will work.

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This simple modification, in turn allows the modification for the axe, when then allows for it to be used as a climbing aid by offering a secure hold when trying to pull yourself up.

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I?ve been very happy with the result, and have been waiting since last winter to share it with you. Now that the snow is back, I figured it would be a good time. If you have been dealing with the same issue, there is an alternate solution, and that is to get an ice axe like the Petzl Sum?Tec, which incorporates some features from ice climbing tools such as the finger rest, and an angled shaft. The reason why I decided not to go that route is because of the added weight of those axes. They are however a good alternative.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2013/12/ice-axe-finger-rest-modification.html

January 31 2014

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Avenza Pdf Maps ? Backwoods Navigation For Your Smart Phone

PDF Maps as a mobile phone/device application made by Avenza. It allows you to use your phone to pull up and navigate different maps when in the woods. Now, I know that this is nothing new. You can certainly pull up maps on your phone, or even get a satellite view of your location. What makes PDF Maps different, survival gear and I think worth mentioning, is that you can load up familiar trail or backwoods maps that many of us already use, and then pinpoint your exact location on them even without internet or phone service.

The Avenza PDF Maps app is available for iOS and Android platforms, and can be downloaded for free from the Apple Store or Google Play. Once the app is downloaded, you can purchase (or in some cases get for free) maps from the Avenza Map Store.

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Once you have purchased the map, it will appear on the start screen, and you can select to view it. Again, the great part of all this is that you can get familiar maps that you have been using before. For example, in the above picture I have downloaded one of the section maps produced by the NY-NJ Trail Conference. I use their map sets all the time, and on the app I can get them in the exact configuration I have in hard copy. You can search maps by producer, area, etc.

In the picture below I have selected the NY-NJ Trails-113 map from the above picture, and you can see it opened.

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Once you have opened the map, you can zoom in to view the desired details.

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Since this is a NY-NJ Trail Conference Map, it shows all of the trail as well as topographic features. The app will show your location on the map using the phone?s GPS receiver, even if there is no other phone or internet connection. You can also see that the app displays the GPS coordinates of the location where the cross hairs on the middle of the screen are located. You can move them find the GPS coordinates at any point on the map.

There are many other features, such as importing and exporting way points. You can also upload your own maps, although if they are not set up with integrated GPS coordinates, you camping gear will not be able to track your location on them.

Anyway, I just wanted to bring the app to your attention. Hopefully development continues, and we can get even more great features out of it.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2013/10/avenza-mdp-maps-backwoods-navigation.html

January 24 2014

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Dude You?re Screwed! Premiers Dec 8, 2013 At 10pm

Dude You?re Screwed! is the newest survival show from the Discovery Channel. Stupid name, I know. We?ll see how the show actually turns out.

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The show is based around five survival experts. Here are the credentials survival gear provided by the Discovery Channel:

  • Terry Schappert, a Green Beret, A -Team leader, medic, sniper and close combat specialist
  • John Hudson, an Extreme Survival Instructor for the UK Royal Air Force
  • Matt Graham, a primitive skills expert and a desert survival instructor
  • Jake Zweig, a former survival kits Navy SEAL, certified in Surface Warfare & as a dive safety officer and helicast master
  • Tom Moore, a veteran Army Scout, bush craft master and wilderness guide

Each episode one of them will be dropped in a remote area of the wilderness without being told ahead of time where that will be. He then has 100 hours to make his way out. The other four experts will do some backseat driving, watching the progress on a television set, and commenting along the way. From the description, the show gives me a Bear Grylls vibe, which is not a good thing, but I?ll watch and see how it turns out.

The show airs this Sunday, December 8, 2013 at 10PM on the Discovery Channel right after the Naked and Afraid two hour premier.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2013/12/dude-youre-screwed-premiers-dec-8-2013.html

January 16 2014

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Ultimate Survival Alaska Season 2 Starts December 15, 2013 At 9pm

Ultimate Survival Alaska is back for season 2. It starts this Sunday, December 15, 2013 at 9PM on the National survival kits Geographic Channel.

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For those of you who didn?t see season 1, the show takes a group of outdoorsmen, and puts them in a location in Alaska. They then have a certain amount of time to reach a predetermined location. They have only the gear they can carry, and a limited supply of food.

This season it looks like they have made some changes, and will have pre-determined teams, such as woodsmen, mountaineers, ex-military, and endurance athletes. The above picture shows the ex-military team. I think it might add an interesting element, to see the different approaches takes. Here is the description from National Geographic: 

?They are some the toughest, most extreme survivalists from across the nation. In the second season of Ultimate Survival Alaska, four teams ? woodsmen, mountaineers, military veterans, and endurance athletes ? go head-to-head in an epic arctic competition that only National Geographic could inspire. Dropped in the middle of the Alaskan wilderness by bush plane, with only their raw, die-hard ingenuity and the gear on their backs, they?ll navigate through treacherous glaciated river valleys, barren ridgelines, and high mountain peaks, battling hunger, hostile predators, and perilous weather conditions along the way. Like the original National Geographic explorers, for those who succeed there is no grand prize, just the well-fought pride of having conquered the grueling challenges that Mother Nature can throw at them. It's an epic competition series where the only prize is survival kits survival.?

I enjoyed the last season, and look forward to this one.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2013/12/ultimate-survival-alaska-season-2.html

January 09 2014

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Trip Report: Storm King Mountain Squirrel Hunt 9/29/13

In order to make up for our last canceled squirrel hunt, my friend Rich and I decided to go out for a day trip this past Sunday and give it another try. Our friend Earl also joined us.

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The location we picked for the hunt was Storm King State Park. The park includes Storm King Mountain and the surrounding area. There is very little information on this area. It seems to be the land the state forgot. There are no controls on hunting here other than what the state regulations provide. 

The last trip report where you saw me squirrel hunting, I was deep in the woods, and I had little worry about seeing another person let alone accidentally being shot. This forest however is fairly close to a populated area, and even though we were bushwhacking the entire trip, we decided to pull out the blaze orange. It is not idea for squirrel hunting, but it beats getting shot.

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I had a very hard time finding a decent blaze orange vest. For some reason all of the stores near me only stock vests in huge sizes. Ultimately, I had to make my own vest from a kid?s size vest that I found. It packs up very small, so it is easy to store in the pack when not in use.

We cut through the woods, and made it some distance inside before we started to actively hunt.

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The are seemed good for squirrel hunting. There was nice tree cover, and most importantly, there were acorns everywhere.

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The are was also good for deer and turkey. There was surprisingly little scat to indicate that, but shortly after entering the forest, we saw clear signs that a buck was in the area.

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We split up for the initial part of the hunt, traveling in the same direction but a few hundred yards apart. We moved very slowly, stopping regularly to look and listen for activity. I had my squirrel call with me, so I gave it a try.

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After a few hours, none of us were having any luck. We joined back up and headed for a nearby lake.

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The squirrel hunt did not go well. None of us had spotted any sign of squirrel. There were no husked acorns, no nests, no chatter, and we didn?t see a single squirrel scurrying away. The only shot fired the whole day was by Rich, who shot in order to scare away a bear that was getting too close.

As a consolation prize, we passed through some dried up stream beds that served as a print trap.

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Deer, raccoon, turkey, it was all there. Then, when we got tot he lake, what looked to be some bear prints.

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We stopped for a bit by the lake, and ate lunch. survival gear

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On our way back we ran across another buck scrape. It was fresh, and you could clearly smell it.

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On the return trip, we also decided to see if we cold find the gear Rich had lost earlier during the day. You see, while we were separated, Rich had discovered an abandoned tree stand, which was just left on the ground. He went to investigate, and was promptly attacked by a swarm of wasps. He ran, he fell, and lost a bunch of the things he had in his pockets. Well, after some searching, we found the spot.

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Approaching with caution, Earl eventually found Rich?s gear.

Speaking of gear, I had with me my day gear. It was comprised of my hunting tools, a squirrel call, the Bushnell Legend Ultra HD 10x25 binoculars, and my Savage 93R17 rifle. I also had with me, aside from my pocket carry, a Nalgene bottle with a nesting Stoic Ti cup, a Platypus water bladder, food, my rain jacket, and my fleece layer. It was all contained in my new day pack, the Osprey Manta 36. The pack is actually a hydration bladder, but I removed the bladder. It is a good size for a day pack. It has a number of pockets, which bring the volume up to 36L, but I just used the main compartment on this trip. The pack is actually grey, even though it looks kind of blue in the picture.

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That?s it for the trip. Not a single squirrel. We?ll have to try a different area the next time, although with pheasant season starting today, it may have to wait for a while.

Here are the GPS maps for anyone who is interested. I am still working on trying to get the elevation profile from the GPS.

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Stormy King Mountain is a nice forest, and I?m sure I will be back here again.


For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://woodtrekker.blogspot.com/2013/10/trip-report-storm-king-mountain.html
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